TEXTBOOK OF BIOCHEMISTRY FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS PDF

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Textbook of Biochemistry for Medical Students First Edition: Second Edition: Third Edition: Fourth Edition: Fifth Edition: Sixth Edition. —Mata Amritanandamayi Devi Preface to the Sixth Edition We are glad to present the sixth edition of the Textbook of Biochemistry for Medical Students. With this. PDF | On Dec 1, , Vishnu Kumar and others published TEXT basic textbook for the undergraduate student, it has. resource material for postgraduates and advanced. learners in biochemistry, medicine and para medical.


Textbook Of Biochemistry For Medical Students Pdf

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Full text of "DM Vasudevan - Textbook of Biochemistry For Medical Students, 6th erreverncolthyp.tk (PDFy mirror)". See other . Firstly, the Medical Council of India has revised the syllabus for biochemistry, especially enhancing the topics on Clinical . DM Vasudevan - Textbook of Biochemistry For Medical Students, 6th erreverncolthyp.tk ( PDFy mirror). The BookReader requires JavaScript to be enabled. Please. Readers can find many titles and maybe have their own list but one that must be in the top list even their library is PDF Textbook of Biochemistry.

The readability has been markedly improved by increasing the font size in the regular areas. Essay and short notes questions, problem solving exercises, viva voce, quick look, multiple choice questions MCQs are given as a separate book, but free of cost. These questions are compiled from the question papers of various universities during the last decade.

These questions will be ideal for students for last-minute preparation for examinations. A textbook will mature only by successive revisions. In the preface for the first edition, we expressed our desire to revise the textbook every 3 years.

We were fortunate to keep that promise. This book has undergone metamorphosis during each edition. Chemical structures with computer technology were introduced in the second edition. Color printing has been launched in the third edition.

The fourth edition came out with multicolor printing. In the fifth edition, the facts were presented in small paragraphs and that too with numbers, so as to aid memorization. In this sixth edition, figures are drastically increased; there are now about 1, figures, tables and boxes perhaps we could call it as Illustrated Textbook of Biochemistry , altogether making the book more student-friendly.

The quality of paper is also improved during successive editions. We were pleasantly surprised to receive many letters giving constructive criticisms and positive suggestions to improve the textbook. These responses were from all parts of the country we got a few such letters from African students also.

Such contributors include Heads of Departments, very senior professors, middle level teachers and mostly postgraduate students. We have tried to incorporate most of those suggestions, within the constraints of page viii Textbook of Biochemistry limitations.

In a way, this book thus became multi-authored, and truly national in character. This is to place on record, our deep gratitude for all those pen-friends who have helped us to improve this book.

Encyclopedia of Biology

The first author desires more interaction with faculty and students who are using this textbook. A successful textbook is something like a growing institution; individuals may come and go, but the institution will march ahead.

Therefore, we felt the need to induce younger blood into the editorial board. Thus, a third author has been added in this sixth edition, so that the torch can be handed over smoothly at an appropriate time later on.

In this connection, I would like to introduce the young author, Dr Kannan Vaidyanathan. He has teaching experience of 15 years. He has also visited many advanced laboratories world over, and presented papers in different international conferences. He has many publications to his credit. The help and assistance rendered by our students in preparing this book are enormous; the reviews collected by Dr Sukhes Mukherjee is specially acknowledged.

The official website of Nobel Academy has been used for pictures and biographies of Nobel laureates. Web pictures, without copyright protection, were also used in some figures. The remarkable success of the book was due to the active support of the publishers. This is to record our appreciation for the co-operation extended by Shri Jitendar P Vij, and his associates.

We hope that this sixth edition will be friendlier to the students and be more attractive to the teachers. Now this is in your hands to judge. End of all knowledge must be building up of character. Then what is the need for yet another textbook? Putting this question to ourselves, we have waited for many years before embarking on this project. Most western textbooks do not emphasise nutrition and such other topics which are very vital to an Indian student.

While Indian authors do cover these portions, they sometimes neglect the expanding fields such as molecular biology and immunochemistry. Thus during our experience of more than 25 years in teaching, the students have been seen compelled to depend on different textbooks during their study of biochemistry. We have tried to keep a balance between the basic essentials and the advanced knowledge.

This book is mainly based on the MBBS curriculum. However, some advanced portions have also been given in almost all chapters. These areas will be very beneficial to the readers preparing for their postgraduate entrance examinations. Chapters on diabetes, cancer and AIDS are included in this book. During their clinical years, the students are going to see such cases quite more often, hence knowledge of applied biochemistry of these diseases will be very helpful.

The authors, themselves medical graduates, have tried to emphasise medical applications of the theoretical knowledge in biochemistry in almost all the chapters.

A few questions have been given at the end of most of the chapters.

These are not comprehensive to cover all the topics, but have been included only to give emphasis to certain points which may otherwise be left unnoticed by some students.

We are indebted to many persons in compiling this textbook. Their valuable suggestions on the applied aspects of biochemistry have been incorporated. Joby Abraham, student of this college has contributed the sketch for some of the figures.

Prof CPK Tharakan, retired professor of English, has taken great pains to go through the entire text and correct the usage of English. The secretarial work has been excellently performed by Mrs Lizy Joseph.

Many of our innumerable graduate and postgraduate students have indirectly contributed by compelling us to read more widely and thoroughly. A lamp that does not glow itself cannot light another lamp Tagore Our expectation is to bring out new editions every 3 years. Suggestions to improve the contents are welcome from the teachers. Biochemical Perspective to Medicine Subcellular Organelles and Cell Membranes Amino Acids: Structure and Properties Proteins: Structure and Function Enzymology: General Concepts and Enzyme Kinetics Chemistry of Carbohydrates Chemistry of Lipids Overview of Metabolism Major Metabolic Pathways of Glucose Minor Metabolic Pathways of Carbohydrates Metabolism of Fatty Acids Cholesterol and Lipoproteins One carbon compounds, Generation and utilization of one carbon groups.

Citric Acid Cycle Biological Oxidation and Electron Transport Chain Free Radicals and Anti-Oxidants Heme Synthesis and Breakdown Clinical Enzymology and Biomarkers Cardiovascular Diseases and Hyperlipidemias Liver and Gastric Function Tests Kidney Function Tests Plasma Proteins Acid-Base Balance and pH Electrolyte and Water Balance Mineral Metabolism and Abnormalities Energy Metabolism and Nutrition Detoxification and Biotransformation of Xenobiotics Contents xv Environmental Pollution and Heavy Metal Poisons Nucleotides; Chemistry and Metabolism Transcription and Translation Inheritance, Mutations and Control of Gene Expression Mechanisms of Action of Hormones Hypothalamic and Pituitary Hormones Steroid Hormones Thyroid Hormones Signal Molecules and Growth Factors Biochemistry of Cancer Tissue Proteins in Health and Disease Applications of Isotopes in Medicine General Techniques for Separation, Purification and Quantitation Contents xvii Molecular Diagnostics Abbreviations Used in this book Normal values Reference values Conversion Chart Greek Alphabet Commonly Used letters as Symbols History of biochemistry 2.

Biomolecules and metabolism 3. Ionic bonds 4. Hydrogen bonding 5. Hydrophobic interactions 6. Principles of thermodynamics 7. Donnan membrane equilibrium Biochemical Perspective to Medicine The word chemistry is derived from the Greek word "chemi" the black land , the ancient name of Egypt. Indian medical science, even from ancient times, had identified the metabolic and genetic basis of diseases.

Charaka, the great master of Indian Medicine, in his treatise circa BC observed that madhumeha diabetes mellitus is produced by the alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats; the statement still holds good.

Biochemistry has developed as an offshoot of organic chemistry, and this branch was often referred as "physiological chemistry". One of the earliest treatises in biochemistry was the "Book of Organic Chemistry and its Applications to Physiology and Pathology", published in by Justus von Liebig , who introduced the concept of metabolism.

DM Vasudevan - Textbook of Biochemistry for Medical Students, 6th Edition

The "Textbook of Physiological Chemistry" was published in by Felix Hoppe-Seyler , who was professor of physiological chemistry at Strausbourge University, France. Some of the milestones in the development of science of biochemistry are given in Table 1. The practice of medicine is both an art and a science.

The word "doctor" is derived from the Latin root, "docere", which means "to teach". Knowledge devoid of ethical background may sometimes be disastrous! About one century earlier, Sushrutha BC , the great Indian surgeon, enunciated a code of conduct to the medical practitioners, which is still valid. He proclaims: "You must speak only truth; care for the good of all living beings; devote yourself to the healing of the sick even if your life be lost by your work; be simply clothed and drink no intoxicant; always seek to grow in knowledge; in face of God, you can take upon yourself these vows.

No wonder, the major share of Nobel prizes in medicine has gone to research workers engaged in biochemistry. Thanks to the advent of DNA-recombination technology, genes can now be transferred from one person to another, so that many of the genetically determined diseases are now amenable to gene therapy.

Many genes, e. Advances in genomics like RNA interference for silencing of genes and creation of transgenic animals by gene targeting of embryonic stem cells are opening up new vistas in therapy of diseases like cancer and AIDS. It is hoped that in future, physician will be able to treat the patient, understanding his genetic basis, so that very efficient "designer medicine" could cure the diseases.

The large amount of data, especially with regard to single Biochemistry is the language of biology. The tools for research in all the branches of medical science are based on principles of biochemistry. The study of biochemistry is essential to understand basic functions of the body. This will give information regarding the functioning of cells at the molecular level.

How the food that we eat is digested, absorbed, and used to make ingredients of the body? How does the body derive energy for the normal day to day work? How are the various metabolic processes interrelated? What is the function of genes? What is the molecular basis for immunological resistance against invading organisms?

Answer for such basic questions can only be derived by a systematic study of medical biochemistry. Modern day medical practice is highly dependent on the laboratory analysis of body fluids, especially the blood. The disease manifestations are reflected in the composition of blood and other tissues.

Hence, the demarcation of abnormal from normal constituents of the body is another aim of the study of clinical biochemistry. Computers are already helping in drug designing process.

Studies on oncogenes have identified molecular mechanisms of control of normal and abnormal cells. Medical practice is now taking more and more help from the field of biochemistry. With the help of human genome project HGP the sequences of the whole human genes are now available; it has already made great impact on medicine and related health sciences. Molecular structures in organisms are built from 30 small precursors, sometimes called the alphabet of biochemistry.

These are 20 amino acids, 2 purines, 3 pyrimidines, sugars glucose and ribose , palmitate, glycerol and choline. In living organisms the biomolecules are ordered into a hierarchy of increasing molecular complexity.

These biomolecules are covalently linked to each other to form macromolecules of the cell, e. Major complex biomolecules are Proteins, Polysaccharides, Lipids and Nucleic acids. The macromolecules associate with each other by noncovalent forces to form supramolecular systems, e. Finally, at the highest level of organisation in the hierarchy of cell structure, various supramolecular complexes are further assembled into cell organelle.

In prokaryotes e. Comparison of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are shown in Table 1. These macromolecules are Table 1. Ionic bonds used in protein interactions group of histidine. Negative charges are provided by beta and gamma carboxyl groups of aspartic acid and glutamic acid Fig.

Hydrogen Bonds These are formed by sharing of a hydrogen between two electron donors. Hydrogen bonds result from electrostatic attraction between an electro-negative atom and a hydrogen atom that is bonded covalently to a second electronegative atom. Normally, a hydrogen atom forms a covalent bond with only one other atom.

However, a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to a donor atom, may form an additional weak association, the hydrogen bond with an acceptor atom. In biological systems, both donors and acceptors are usually nitrogen or oxygen atoms, especially those atoms in amino NH2 and hydroxyl OH groups.

With regard to protein chemistry, hydrogen releasing groups are -NH imidazole, indole, peptide ; -OH serine, threonine and -NH2 arginine lysine. The DNA structure is maintained by hydrogen bonding between the purine and pyrimidine residues.

Covalent bond Fig. Ionic bond to be first broken down to small units; carbohydrates to monosaccharides and proteins to amino acids. This process is taking place in the gastrointestinal tract and is called digestion or primary metabolism. After absorption, the small molecules are further broken down and oxidised to carbon dioxide.

This is named as secondary or intermediary metabolism. Finally, these reducing equivalents enter the electron transport chain in the mitochondria, where they are oxidised to water; in this process energy is trapped as ATP.

This is termed tertiary metabolism. Metabolism is the sum of all chemical changes of a compound inside the body, which includes synthesis anabolism and breakdown catabolism.

Covalent Bonds Molecules are formed by sharing of electrons between atoms Fig. Ionic Bonds or Electrostatic Bonds Ionic bonds result from the electrostatic attraction between two ionized groups of opposite charges Fig. They are formed by transfer of one or more electrons from the outermost orbit of an electropositive atom to the outermost orbit of an electronegative atom.

This transfer results in the formation of a cation and an anion, which get consequently bound by an ionic bond. Chemistry of Lipids Overview of Metabolism Major Metabolic Pathways of Glucose Minor Metabolic Pathways of Carbohydrates Metabolism of Fatty Acids Cholesterol and Lipoproteins One carbon compounds, Generation and utilization of one carbon groups.

Citric Acid Cycle Biological Oxidation and Electron Transport Chain Free Radicals and Anti-Oxidants Heme Synthesis and Breakdown Clinical Enzymology and Biomarkers Cardiovascular Diseases and Hyperlipidemias Liver and Gastric Function Tests Kidney Function Tests Plasma Proteins Acid-Base Balance and pH Electrolyte and Water Balance Mineral Metabolism and Abnormalities Energy Metabolism and Nutrition Detoxification and Biotransformation of Xenobiotics Contents xv Environmental Pollution and Heavy Metal Poisons Nucleotides; Chemistry and Metabolism Transcription and Translation Inheritance, Mutations and Control of Gene Expression Mechanisms of Action of Hormones Hypothalamic and Pituitary Hormones Steroid Hormones Thyroid Hormones Signal Molecules and Growth Factors Biochemistry of Cancer Tissue Proteins in Health and Disease Applications of Isotopes in Medicine General Techniques for Separation, Purification and Quantitation Contents xvii Molecular Diagnostics Abbreviations Used in this book Normal values Reference values Conversion Chart Greek Alphabet Commonly Used letters as Symbols History of biochemistry 2.

Biomolecules and metabolism 3. Ionic bonds 4. Hydrogen bonding 5. Hydrophobic interactions 6. Principles of thermodynamics 7. Donnan membrane equilibrium Biochemical Perspective to Medicine The word chemistry is derived from the Greek word "chemi" the black land , the ancient name of Egypt.

Indian medical science, even from ancient times, had identified the metabolic and genetic basis of diseases. Charaka, the great master of Indian Medicine, in his treatise circa BC observed that madhumeha diabetes mellitus is produced by the alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats; the statement still holds good.

Biochemistry has developed as an offshoot of organic chemistry, and this branch was often referred as "physiological chemistry". One of the earliest treatises in biochemistry was the "Book of Organic Chemistry and its Applications to Physiology and Pathology", published in by Justus von Liebig , who introduced the concept of metabolism. The "Textbook of Physiological Chemistry" was published in by Felix Hoppe-Seyler , who was professor of physiological chemistry at Strausbourge University, France.

Some of the milestones in the development of science of biochemistry are given in Table 1. The practice of medicine is both an art and a science. The word "doctor" is derived from the Latin root, "docere", which means "to teach". Knowledge devoid of ethical background may sometimes be disastrous!

About one century earlier, Sushrutha BC , the great Indian surgeon, enunciated a code of conduct to the medical practitioners, which is still valid. He proclaims: "You must speak only truth; care for the good of all living beings; devote yourself to the healing of the sick even if your life be lost by your work; be simply clothed and drink no intoxicant; always seek to grow in knowledge; in face of God, you can take upon yourself these vows.

No wonder, the major share of Nobel prizes in medicine has gone to research workers engaged in biochemistry. Thanks to the advent of DNA-recombination technology, genes can now be transferred from one person to another, so that many of the genetically determined diseases are now amenable to gene therapy.

Many genes, e. Advances in genomics like RNA interference for silencing of genes and creation of transgenic animals by gene targeting of embryonic stem cells are opening up new vistas in therapy of diseases like cancer and AIDS. It is hoped that in future, physician will be able to treat the patient, understanding his genetic basis, so that very efficient "designer medicine" could cure the diseases.

The large amount of data, especially with regard to single Biochemistry is the language of biology. The tools for research in all the branches of medical science are based on principles of biochemistry.

The study of biochemistry is essential to understand basic functions of the body. This will give information regarding the functioning of cells at the molecular level. How the food that we eat is digested, absorbed, and used to make ingredients of the body? How does the body derive energy for the normal day to day work? How are the various metabolic processes interrelated? What is the function of genes? What is the molecular basis for immunological resistance against invading organisms?

Answer for such basic questions can only be derived by a systematic study of medical biochemistry. Modern day medical practice is highly dependent on the laboratory analysis of body fluids, especially the blood. The disease manifestations are reflected in the composition of blood and other tissues.

Hence, the demarcation of abnormal from normal constituents of the body is another aim of the study of clinical biochemistry. Computers are already helping in drug designing process. Studies on oncogenes have identified molecular mechanisms of control of normal and abnormal cells. Medical practice is now taking more and more help from the field of biochemistry. With the help of human genome project HGP the sequences of the whole human genes are now available; it has already made great impact on medicine and related health sciences.

Molecular structures in organisms are built from 30 small precursors, sometimes called the alphabet of biochemistry. These are 20 amino acids, 2 purines, 3 pyrimidines, sugars glucose and ribose , palmitate, glycerol and choline.

In living organisms the biomolecules are ordered into a hierarchy of increasing molecular complexity. These biomolecules are covalently linked to each other to form macromolecules of the cell, e. Major complex biomolecules are Proteins, Polysaccharides, Lipids and Nucleic acids. The macromolecules associate with each other by noncovalent forces to form supramolecular systems, e.

Finally, at the highest level of organisation in the hierarchy of cell structure, various supramolecular complexes are further assembled into cell organelle. In prokaryotes e. Comparison of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are shown in Table 1.

These macromolecules are Table 1. Ionic bonds used in protein interactions group of histidine. Negative charges are provided by beta and gamma carboxyl groups of aspartic acid and glutamic acid Fig. Hydrogen Bonds These are formed by sharing of a hydrogen between two electron donors. Hydrogen bonds result from electrostatic attraction between an electro-negative atom and a hydrogen atom that is bonded covalently to a second electronegative atom.

Normally, a hydrogen atom forms a covalent bond with only one other atom. However, a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to a donor atom, may form an additional weak association, the hydrogen bond with an acceptor atom. In biological systems, both donors and acceptors are usually nitrogen or oxygen atoms, especially those atoms in amino NH2 and hydroxyl OH groups.

With regard to protein chemistry, hydrogen releasing groups are -NH imidazole, indole, peptide ; -OH serine, threonine and -NH2 arginine lysine. The DNA structure is maintained by hydrogen bonding between the purine and pyrimidine residues.

Covalent bond Fig. Ionic bond to be first broken down to small units; carbohydrates to monosaccharides and proteins to amino acids. This process is taking place in the gastrointestinal tract and is called digestion or primary metabolism. After absorption, the small molecules are further broken down and oxidised to carbon dioxide. This is named as secondary or intermediary metabolism. Finally, these reducing equivalents enter the electron transport chain in the mitochondria, where they are oxidised to water; in this process energy is trapped as ATP.

This is termed tertiary metabolism. Metabolism is the sum of all chemical changes of a compound inside the body, which includes synthesis anabolism and breakdown catabolism. Covalent Bonds Molecules are formed by sharing of electrons between atoms Fig. Ionic Bonds or Electrostatic Bonds Ionic bonds result from the electrostatic attraction between two ionized groups of opposite charges Fig. They are formed by transfer of one or more electrons from the outermost orbit of an electropositive atom to the outermost orbit of an electronegative atom.

This transfer results in the formation of a cation and an anion, which get consequently bound by an ionic bond. With regard to protein chemistry, positive charges are produced by epsilon amino group of lysine, guanidium group of arginine and imidazolium Fig.

Hydrophobic Interactions Non-polar groups have a tendency to associate with each other in an aqueous environment; this is referred to as hydrophobic interaction. These are formed by interactions between nonpolar hydrophobic side chains by eliminating water molecules. The force that causes hydrophobic molecules or nonpolar portions of molecules to aggregate together rather than to dissolve in water is called the hydrophobic bond Fig.

This serves to hold lipophilic side chains of amino acids together. Thus, nonpolar molecules will have minimum exposure to water molecules.

Van Der Waals Forces These are very weak forces of attraction between all atoms, due to oscillating dipoles, described by the Dutch physicist Johannes van der Waals He was awarded Nobel prize in These are short range attractive forces between chemical groups in contact. Van der Waals interactions occur in all types of molecules, both polar and nonpolar.

This force will drastically reduce, when the distance between atoms is increased. Although very weak, van der Waals forces collectively contribute maximum towards the stability of protein structure, especially in preserving the nonpolar interior structure of proteins. The hydrogen atom in one water molecule is attracted to a pair of electrons in the outer shell of an oxygen atom in an adjacent molecule. The structure of liquid water contains hydrogen-bonded networks Fig.

The crystal structure of ice depicts a tetrahedral arrangement of water molecules. Four others bound by hydrogen bonds surround each oxygen atom. On melting, the molecules get much closer and this results in the increase in density of water.

Hence, liquid water is denser than solid ice. This also explains why ice floats on water. Water molecules are in rapid motion, constantly making and breaking hydrogen bonds with adjacent molecules. As the temperature of water increases Fig. A few gifted properties of water make it the most preferred medium for all cellular reactions and interactions. Water is a polar molecule. Molecules with polar bonds that can easily form hydrogen bonds with water can dissolve in water and are termed hydrophilic.

It has immense hydrogen bonding capacity both with other molecules and also the adjacent water molecules.

This contributes to cohesiveness of water. Water favors hydrophobic interactions and provides a basis for metabolism of insoluble substances.

Water expands when it is cooled from 4oC to o 0 C, while normally liquids are expected to contract due to cooling. As water is heated from 0oC to 4 oC, the hydrogen bonds begin to break. This results in a decrease in volume or in other words, increase in density. Hence, water attains high density at 4oC. However, above 4oC the effect of temperature predominates. Bioenergetics, or biochemical thermodynamics, is the study of the energy changes accompanying biochemical reactions.

Biological systems use chemical energy to power living processes. First Law of Thermodynamics The total energy of a system, including its surroundings, remains constant.

This is also called the law of conservation of energy. If heat is transformed into work, there is proportionality between the work obtained and the heat dissipated.

DM Vasudevan - Textbook of Biochemistry for Medical Students, 6th Edition

A system is an object or a quantity of matter, chosen for observation. All other parts of the universe, outside the boundary of the system, are called the surroundings. Second Law of Thermodynamics The total entropy of a system must increase if a process is to occur spontaneously. A reaction occurs spontaneously if E is negative, or if the entropy of the system increases. Entropy S is a measure of the degree of randomness or disorder of a system. Entropy becomes maximum in a system as it approaches true equilibrium.

Enthalpy is the heat content of a system and entropy is that fraction of enthalpy which is not available to do useful work. A closed system approaches a state of equilibrium. Any system can spontaneously proceed from a state of low probability ordered state to a state of high probability disordered state. The entropy of a system may decrease with an increase in that of the surroundings. Gibb's Free Energy Concept The term free energy is used to get an equation combining the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

The term free energy denotes a portion of the total energy change in a system that is available for doing work. For most biochemical reactions, it is seen that H is nearly equal to E. Hence, G or free energy of a system depends on the change in internal energy and change in entropy of a system.

Standard Free Energy Change It is the free energy change under standard conditions. It is designated as G0. The standard conditions are defined for biochemical reactions at a pH of 7 and 1 M concentration, and differentiated by a priming sign G0.

It is directly related to the equilibrium constant. Actual free energy changes depend on reactant and product. Most of the reversible metabolic reactions are near equilibrium reactions and therefore their G is nearly zero.

The net rate of near equilibrium reactions are effectively regulated by the relative concentration of substrates and products. The metabolic reactions that function far from equilibrium are irreversible. The velocity of these reactions are altered by changes in enzyme activity.

A highly exergonic reaction is irreversible and goes to completion. Such a reaction that is part of a metabolic pathway, confers direction to the pathway and makes the entire pathway irreversible.

Three Types of Reactions A. A reaction can occur spontaneously when G is negative.Audible Download Audio Books. We have tried to incorporate most of those suggestions, within the constraints of page viii Textbook of Biochemistry limitations. The quality of paper is also improved during successive editions. Essay and short notes questions, problem solving exercises, viva voce, quick look, multiple choice questions MCQs are given as a separate book, but free of cost.

Simple and facilitated diffusion 9. Marker Enzymes Some enzymes are present in certain organelles only; such specific enzymes are called as marker enzymes Table 2.

It Starts with Food: Discover the Whole30 and Change Your Life in Unexpected Ways

Entropy becomes maximum in a system as it approaches true equilibrium. Chapter 2; Subcellular Organelles and Cell Membranes 17 against a concentration gradient is coupled with movement of a second substance down the concentration gradient; the second molecule being already concentrated within the cell by an energy requiring process. Lysine, Arginine and Histidine. Due to Carboxyl Group 1.